Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract A \(d^{\{n\}}\) -cage \(\mathsf K\) is the union of n groups of hyperplanes in \(\mathbb P^n\) , each group containing d members. The hyperplanes from the distinct groups are in general position, thus producing \(d^n\) points where hyperplanes from all groups intersect. These points are called the nodes of \(\mathsf K\) . We study the combinatorics of nodes that impose independent conditions on the varieties \(X \subset \mathbb P^n\) containing them. We prove that if X, given by homogeneous polynomials of degrees \(\le d\) , contains the points from such a special set \(\mathsf A\) of nodes, then it contains all the nodes of \(\mathsf K\) . Such a variety X is very special: in particular, X is a complete intersection. PubDate: 2021-09-30

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract Chord diagrams and 4-term relations were introduced by Vassiliev in the late 1980. Various constructions of weight systems are known, and each of such constructions gives rise to a knot invariant. In particular, weight systems may be constructed from Lie algebras as well as from the so-called 4-invariants of graphs. A Chmutov–Lando theorem states that the value of the weight system constructed from the Lie algebra \(\mathfrak {sl}_2\) on a chord diagram depends on the intersection graph of the diagram, rather than the diagram itself. This inspired a question due to Lando about whether it is possible to extend the weight system \(\mathfrak {sl}_2\) to a graph invariant satisfying the four term relations for graphs. We show that for all graphs with up to 8 vertices such an extension exists and is unique, thus answering in affirmative to Lando’s question for small graphs. PubDate: 2021-09-06

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract Point-vortex dynamics describe idealized, non-smooth solutions to the incompressible Euler equations on two-dimensional manifolds. Integrability results for few point-vortices on various domains is a vivid topic, with many results and techniques scattered in the literature. Here, we give a unified framework for proving integrability results for \(N=2\) , 3, or 4 point-vortices (and also more general Hamiltonian systems), based on symplectic reduction theory. The approach works on any two-dimensional manifold with a symmetry group; we illustrate it on the sphere, the plane, the hyperbolic plane, and the flat torus. A systematic study of integrability is prompted by advances in two-dimensional turbulence, bridging the long-time behaviour of 2D Euler equations with questions of point-vortex integrability. A gallery of solutions is given in the appendix. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract Given a system of analytic functions and an approximate zero, we introduce inflation to transform this system into one with a regular quadratic zero. This leads to a method for isolating a cluster of zeros of the given system. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract An approach to interpolation of compact subsets of \({{\mathbb {C}}}^n\) , including Brunn–Minkowski type inequalities for the capacities of the interpolating sets, was developed in [8] by means of plurisubharmonic geodesics between relative extremal functions of the given sets. Here we show that a much better control can be achieved by means of the geodesics between weighted relative extremal functions. In particular, we establish convexity properties of the capacities that are stronger than those given by the Brunn–Minkowski inequalities. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract The billiard in an ellipse has a conserved quantity, the Joachimsthal integral. We show that the existence of such an integral characterizes conics. We extend this result to the spherical and hyperbolic geometries and to higher dimensions. We connect the existence of Joachimsthal integral with the Poritsky property, a property of billiard curves, called so after H. Poritsky whose important paper Poritsky (Ann Math 51:446–470, 1950) was one of the early studies of the billiard problem. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We discuss a problem of Arnold, whether every function is stably equivalent to one which is non-degenerate for its Newton diagram. We argue that the answer is negative. We describe a method to make functions non-degenerate after stabilisation and give examples of singularities where this method does not work. We conjecture that they are in fact stably degenerate, that is not stably equivalent to non-degenerate functions. We review the various non-degeneracy concepts in the literature. For finite characteristic, we conjecture that there are no wild vanishing cycles for non-degenerate singularities. This implies that the simplest example of singularities with finite Milnor number, \(x^p+x^q\) in characteristic p, is not stably equivalent to a non-degenerate function. We argue that irreducible plane curves with an arbitrary number of Puiseux pairs (in characteristic zero) are stably non-degenerate. As the stabilisation involves many variables, it becomes very difficult to determine the Newton diagram in general, but the form of the equations indicates that the defining functions are non-degenerate. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract In 1987, Yomdin proved a lemma on smooth parametrizations of semialgebraic sets as part of his solution of Shub’s entropy conjecture for \(C^\infty \) maps. The statement was further refined by Gromov, producing what is now known as the Yomdin–Gromov algebraic lemma. Several complete proofs based on Gromov’s sketch have appeared in the literature, but these have been considerably more complicated than Gromov’s original presentation due to some technical issues. In this note, we give a proof that closely follows Gromov’s original presentation. We prove a somewhat stronger statement, where the parametrizing maps are guaranteed to be cellular. It turns out that this additional restriction, along with some elementary lemmas on differentiable functions in o-minimal structures, allows the induction to be carried out without technical difficulties. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract Dynamical billiards, or the behavior of a particle traveling in a planar region D undergoing elastic collisions with the boundary has been extensively studied and is used to model many physical phenomena such as a Boltzmann gas. Of particular interest are the dispersing billiards, where D consists of a union of finitely many open convex regions. These billiard flows are known to be ergodic and to possess the K-property. However, Turaev and Rom-Kedar proved that for dispersing systems permitting singular periodic orbits, there exists a family of smooth Hamiltonian flows with regions of stability near such orbits, converging to the billiard flow. They conjecture that systems possessing such singular periodic orbits are dense in the space of all dispersing billiard systems and remark that if this conjecture is true then every dispersing billiard system is arbitrarily close to a non-ergodic smooth Hamiltonian flow with regions of stability [6]. We present a partial solution to this conjecture by showing that any system with a near-singular periodic orbit satisfying certain conditions can be perturbed to a system that permits a singular periodic orbit. We comment on the assumptions of our theorem that must be removed to prove the conjecture of Turaev and Rom-Kedar. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We introduce 50+ new invariants manifested by the dynamic geometry of N-periodics in the Elliptic Billiard, detected with an experimental/interactive toolbox. These involve sums, products and ratios of distances, areas, angles, etc. Though curious in their manifestation, said invariants do all depend upon the two fundamental conserved quantities in the Elliptic Billiard: perimeter and Joachimsthal’s constant. Several proofs have already been contributed (references are provided); these have mainly relied on algebraic geometry. We very much welcome new proofs and contributions. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract In an analogy with the Galois homothety property for torsion points of abelian varieties that was used in the proof of the Mordell–Lang conjecture, we describe a correspondence between the action of a Galois group and the dynamical action of a rational map. For nonlinear polynomials with rational coefficients, the irreducibility of the associated dynatomic polynomial serves as a convenient criterion, although we also verify that the correspondence occurs in several cases when the dynatomic polynomial is reducible. The work of Morton, Morton–Patel, and Vivaldi–Hatjispyros in the early 1990s connected the irreducibility and Galois-theoretic properties of dynatomic polynomials to rational periodic points; from the Galois–dynamics correspondence, we derive similar consequences for quadratic periodic points of unicritical polynomials. This is sufficient to deduce the non-existence of quadratic periodic points of quadratic polynomials with exact period 5 and 6, outside of a specified finite set from Morton and Krumm’s work in explicit Hilbert irreducibility. PubDate: 2021-09-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We consider a pair of games where two players alternately select previously unselected elements of \(\mathbb {Z}_n\) given a particular starting element. On each turn, the player either adds or multiplies the element they selected to the result of the previous turn. In one game, the first player wins if the final result is 0; in the other, the second player wins if the final result is 0. We determine which player has the winning strategy for both games except for the latter game with nonzero starting element when \(n \in \{2p,4p\}\) for some odd prime p. PubDate: 2021-08-18

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract The 1d family of Poncelet polygons interscribed between two circles is known as the Bicentric family. Using elliptic functions and Liouville’s theorem, we show (i) that this family has invariant sum of internal angle cosines and (ii) that the pedal polygons with respect to the family’s limiting points have invariant perimeter. Interestingly, both (i) and (ii) are also properties of elliptic billiard N-periodics. Furthermore, since the pedal polygons in (ii) are identical to inversions of elliptic billiard N-periodics with respect to a focus-centered circle, an important corollary is that (iii) elliptic billiard focus-inversive N-gons have constant perimeter. Interestingly, these also conserve their sum of cosines (except for the \(N=4\) case). PubDate: 2021-08-18

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We prove fixed point results for branched covering maps f of the plane. For complex polynomials P with Julia set \(J_{P}\) these imply that periodic cutpoints of some invariant subcontinua of \(J_{P}\) are also cutpoints of \(J_{P}\) . We deduce that, under certain assumptions on invariant subcontinua Q of \(J_{P}\) , every Riemann ray to Q landing at a periodic repelling/parabolic point \(x\in Q\) is isotopic to a Riemann ray to \(J_{P}\) relative to Q. PubDate: 2021-08-16

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We classify global surfaces of section for flows on 3-manifolds defining Seifert fibrations. We discuss branched coverings—one way or the other—between surfaces of section for the Hopf flow and those for any other Seifert fibration of the 3-sphere, and we relate these surfaces of section to algebraic curves in weighted complex projective planes. PubDate: 2021-08-05

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract The classical Lyapunov–Poincaré center theorem assures the existence of a first integral for an analytic 1-form near a center singularity in dimension two, provided that the first jet of the 1-form is nondegenerate. The basic point is the existence of an analytic first integral for the given 1-form. In this paper, we consider generalizations for two main frameworks: (1) real analytic foliations of codimension one in higher dimension and (2) singular holomorphic foliations in dimension two. All this is related to the problem of finding criteria assuring the existence of analytic first integrals for a given codimension one germ with a suitable first jet. Our approach consists in giving an interpretation of the center theorem in terms of holomorphic foliations and, following an idea of Moussu, apply the holomorphic foliations arsenal to obtain the required first integral. As a consequence we are able to revisit some of Reeb’s classical results on integrable perturbations of exact homogeneous 1-forms, and prove versions of these in the framework of non-isolated (perturbations of transversely Morse type) singularities. PubDate: 2021-07-13

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We give an explicit formula for the expectation of the number of real lines on a random invariant cubic surface, i.e., a surface \(Z\subset {\mathbb {R}}{\mathrm {P}}^3\) defined by a random gaussian polynomial whose probability distribution is invariant under the action of the orthogonal group O(4) by change of variables. Such invariant distributions are completely described by one parameter \(\lambda \in [0,1]\) and as a function of this parameter the expected number of real lines equals: $$\begin{aligned} E_\lambda =\frac{9(8\lambda ^2+(1-\lambda )^2)}{2\lambda ^2+(1-\lambda )^2}\left( \frac{2\lambda ^2}{8\lambda ^2+(1-\lambda )^2}-\frac{1}{3}+\frac{2}{3}\sqrt{\frac{8\lambda ^2+(1-\lambda )^2}{20\lambda ^2+(1-\lambda )^2}}\right) . \end{aligned}$$ This result generalizes previous results by Basu et al. (Math Ann 374(3–4):1773–1810, 2019) for the case of a Kostlan polynomial, which corresponds to \(\lambda =\frac{1}{3}\) and for which \(E_{\frac{1}{3}}=6\sqrt{2}-3.\) Moreover, we show that the expectation of the number of real lines is maximized by random purely harmonic cubic polynomials, which corresponds to the case \(\lambda =1\) and for which \(E_1=24\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}}-3\) . PubDate: 2021-07-02

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract There is a strange duality between the quadrangle isolated complete intersection singularities discovered by the first author and Wall. We derive this duality from a variation of the Berglund–Hübsch transposition of invertible polynomials introduced in our previous work about the strange duality between hypersurface and complete intersection singularities using matrix factorizations of size two. PubDate: 2021-06-22

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract We consider Bethe subalgebras B(C) in the Yangian \({\mathrm {Y}}({\mathfrak {gl}}_2)\) with C regular \(2\times 2\) matrix. We study the action of Bethe subalgebras of \({\mathrm {Y}}({\mathfrak {gl}}_2)\) on finite-dimensional representations of \({\mathrm {Y}}({\mathfrak {gl}}_2)\) . We prove that B(C) with real diagonal C has simple spectrum on any irreducible \({\mathrm {Y}}({\mathfrak {gl}}_2)\) -module corresponding to a disjoint union of real strings. We extend this result to limits of Bethe algebras. Our main tool is the computation of Shapovalov-type determinant for the nilpotent degeneration of B(C). PubDate: 2021-06-01

Please help us test our new pre-print finding feature by giving the pre-print link a rating. A 5 star rating indicates the linked pre-print has the exact same content as the published article.

Abstract: Abstract In the recent paper Bürgisser and Lerario (Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelles J), 2016) introduced a geometric framework for a probabilistic study of real Schubert Problems. They denoted by \(\delta _{k,n}\) the average number of projective k-planes in \({\mathbb {R}}\mathrm {P}^n\) that intersect \((k+1)(n-k)\) many random, independent and uniformly distributed linear projective subspaces of dimension \(n-k-1\) . They called \(\delta _{k,n}\) the expected degree of the real Grassmannian \({\mathbb {G}}(k,n)\) and, in the case \(k=1\) , they proved that: $$\begin{aligned} \delta _{1,n}= \frac{8}{3\pi ^{5/2}} \cdot \left( \frac{\pi ^2}{4}\right) ^n \cdot n^{-1/2} \left( 1+{\mathcal {O}}\left( n^{-1}\right) \right) . \end{aligned}$$ Here we generalize this result and prove that for every fixed integer \(k>0\) and as \(n\rightarrow \infty \) , we have $$\begin{aligned} \delta _{k,n}=a_k \cdot \left( b_k\right) ^n\cdot n^{-\frac{k(k+1)}{4}}\left( 1+{\mathcal {O}}(n^{-1})\right) \end{aligned}$$ where \(a_k\) and \(b_k\) are some (explicit) constants, and \(a_k\) involves an interesting integral over the space of polynomials that have all real roots. For instance: $$\begin{aligned} \delta _{2,n}= \frac{9\sqrt{3}}{2048\sqrt{2\pi }} \cdot 8^n \cdot n^{-3/2} \left( 1+{\mathcal {O}}\left( n^{-1}\right) \right) . \end{aligned}$$ Moreover we prove that these numbers belong to the ring of periods intoduced by Kontsevich and Zagier and give an explicit formula for \(\delta _{1,n}\) involving a one-dimensional integral of certain combination of Elliptic functions. PubDate: 2021-06-01